×

Help us help you

If we have helped you become a better cook, please become a Pitmaster Club member and help us become a better website. Benefits for members include:

(1) Seminars with famous Pitmaster Professors
(2) Access to The Pit forum
(3) An all new expanded Temperature Guide Magnet
(4) Gold Medal Giveaways of free grills and smokers
(5) Support for Operation BBQ Relief
(6) Support for AmazingRibs.com!

Learn more about the Pitmaster Club

Not ready to subscribe yet? Return to AmazingRibs.com

bbq grill and accessories ad
AmazingRibs.com BBQ Logo

message from meathead

Meathead the Barbecue & Grilling Lover Cartoon

Get Smoke Signals,
our FREE e-letter.
No spam. Guaranteed. Enter your email:

bbq ad

http://tinyurl.com/amazingribs

If you like AmazingRibs.com, please save this link and use it every time you go to Amazon. Amazon and many other websites pay us a small referral fee when you click our links and purchase from them. It works on everything from grills to diapers, Amazon never tells us what you bought, it has zero impact on the price you pay, but has a major impact on our ability to improve this site!

Digital Thermometers:
Stop Guessing!

thermopop bbq thermometer

Gold BBQ AwardA good digital thermometer keeps me from serving dry overcooked food or dangerously undercooked food. You can get a professional grade, fast and precise splashproof thermometer like the Thermopop (above) for about $24. The Thermapen (below), the Ferrari of instant reads, is about $96. It's the one you see all the TV chefs and all the top competition pitmasters using. Click here to read more about types of thermometer and our ratings and reviews.

bbq thermapen

GrillGrates Take You To
The Infrared Zone

BBQ_grill_grates

Gold BBQ AwardGrillGrates(TM) amplify heat, prevent flareups, make flipping foods easier, produce great grill marks, keep small foods from committing suicide, kill hotspots, are easier to clean, flip over to make a fine griddle, smolder wood right below the meat, and can be easily removed and moved from one grill to another. You can even throw wood chips or pellets or sawdust between the rails and deliver a quick burst of smoke to whatever is above. Every gas grill and pellet smoker needs them.

Click here to read more about what makes these grates so special and how they compare to other cooking surfaces.

The Smokenator:
A Necessity For All Weber Kettles

smokenator bbq system

Gold BBQ Award If you have a Weber Kettle, you need the amazing Smokenator and Hovergrill. The Smokenator turns your grill into a first class smoker, and the Hovergrill can add capacity or be used to create steakhouse steaks.

Click here to read more.

The Pit Barrel Cooker

pit barrel c ooker bbqAbsolutely positively without a doubt the best bargain on a smoker in the world.

This baby will cook circles around the cheap offset sideways barrel smokers in the hardware stores because temperature control is so much easier (and that's because smoke and heat go up, not sideways).

Gold BBQ AwardBest of all, it is only $289 delivered to your door!

Click here to read our detailed review and the raves from people who own them.

scissor tongs

Best. Tongs. Ever.

Gold BBQ AwardMade of rugged 1/8" thick aluminum, 20" long, with four serious rivets, mine show zero signs of weakness after years of abuse. I use them on meats, hot charcoal, burning logs, and with the mechanical advantage that the scissor design creates, I can easily pick up a whole packer brisket. Click here to read more.

Amp Up The Smoke

mo's smoking pouch

Gold BBQ AwardMo's Smoking Pouch is essential for gas grills. It is an envelope of mesh 304 stainless steel that holds wood chips or pellets. The airspaces in the mesh are small enough that they limit the amount of oxygen that gets in so the wood smokes and never bursts into flame. Put it on top of the cooking grate, on the burners, on the coals, or stand it on edge at the back of your grill. It holds enough wood for about 15 minutes for short cooks, so you need to refill it or buy a second pouch for long cooks like pork shoulder and brisket. Mine has survived mor than 50 cooks. Click for more info.

steak knives for bbq

The Best Steakhouse Knives

Gold BBQ AwardThe same knives used at Peter Luger, Smith & Wollensky, and Morton's. Machine washable, high-carbon stainless steel, hardwood handle. And now they have the AmazingRibs.com imprimatur. Click for more info.


The space above can be yours at our lowest rate. Click here to go to Blogads where you can upload your ad, pick the duration, and pay with credit card. It's easy!

tailgater magazine
digg

Stickburning:
Smoking With Wood

"The invention of fire transformed human culture, expanding the horizons and richness of our food supply, and liberating the molecules and calories necessary to sustain an evolving mind." Dr. Greg Blonder

By Meathead Goldwyn

The next time you hear a charcoal snob say gas is for wimps, the proper rejoinder is "Charcoal is for wimps. Real pitmasters cook with logs."

Long before charcoal, early hominids lit logs and tossed the meat into the inferno where it promptly turned black. They soon learned that holding the food above the fire (direct heat) or to the side of the fire (indirect heat) made it taste better than burning it to a crisp in the fire.

Eventually four solutions evolved: Open pits, ovens, closed pits, and portable pits.

Open pits. As the centuries marched, cooks evolved their methods by digging holes, throwing in logs and setting them on fire, laying a grid of sticks across the pit, and placing the meat well above the intense heat. This "open pit" method had the advantage of slowly roasting the meat, with the added benefit of smoke, which improved flavor and preserved the meat.

inside pizza oven

Ovens. Archaeologists have uncovered shallow caves that were used as ovens by early homonids. Eventually they built wood fired ovens from stone, clay, and brick. Some had an opening in the front, like a pizza oven, and others were fired up and sealed so the wood used all the oxygen and the walls were so hot that they continued to radiate heat for hours.

Closed pits. The problem with open pits was that the meat cooked only on one side, so it needed constant turning, and it used a lot of wood. Covering the pits solved the problem, bathing the meat on all sides with convection airflow.

Portable pits. In the 1970s, oil workers in Texas started building tubular portable pits from steel pipe sections, large propane tanks, and oil drums and hauling them from job site to job site on trailers. With the addition of a damper on one end and a chimney on the other, cooks could regulate temperature and smoke by controlling airflow. Eventually they built them with a firebox welded to the side to keep the burning logs isolated from the food.

In the late 20th century charcoal became the fuel of choice because it was faster and it allowed the pitmaster better control of temp and flavor, but cooking with logs remained beloved by a small number of artisans. It is hard to control heat and smoke with logs. There is a reason why they call them "pitmasters". Beginners should not try to smoke meats with logs. But if you have mastered smoke roasting with charcoal (not gas or pellets), you may be ready to go back to your roots. Fun and flavor await the patient and practiced. There are two ways to approach "stickburning": Old-style with direct heat or modern with indirect heat.

Old-style: Direct heat

pulley pits at black's bbqDirect heat covered pits are still used extensively throughout Texas and Chicago, and I've seen them scattered around the nation in Alabama, Memphis, Kansas City, Southern California, and elsewhere.

burn boxIn Texas the "pulley pit" is common. It is a large brick box with a steel cooking grate below a heavy metal lid that is hinged at the back. This weighty cover is tied to a rope that goes through a pulley hanging from the ceiling and is tied to a counterweight to help the pitmaster hoist it open.

To fire a pulley pit, wood is burned down to glowing embers in a "burn box", shoveled into the pit, and spread below the meat. The burn box shown here is simply a 55 gallon drum. Logs are dropped in the top and they rest on rebar that has been inserted near the bottom. The glowing embers fall through the bars, are removed from an opening cut in the side, and shoveled into the pit.

cozy corners barbecueIn Chicago, a variation of the brick pit, the "aquarium pit", can be found in perhaps a dozen old establishments. A few have made their way out of town. The example in the picture here is at the famous Cozy Corner in Memphis.

The aquarium pit has no lid. The meat is in a tempered glass enclosed cabinet, the aquarium, with a ventilation hood above and the firepit below. Pitmasters really earn their title with these babies. They toss whole logs or split logs in through a door on the bottom, rake embers around, shuffle the meat from hot side to cool side, to an upper shelf, and use a garden hose is to keep the flames tamed and produce humidity. You can see the garden hose hanging at the ready on the right of the picture.

Aquarium pits are built to order by Belvin J & F Sheet Metal or Avenue Metal Co., both in Chicago. If you want a pulley pit start by using my plans for a hog pit.

Modern: Indirect heat

Johnny Trigg and his JamboIf you want to smoke with logs, the best way to go is with a high quality "offset smoker". Offsets are usually a section of pipe pretty close to the original design by oil workers. But after the pipe is cut, some complex engineering comes into play.

Modern units like Johnny Trigg's Jambo, shown here, have two chambers, one for food and the other for the fire. The food chamber is a long pipe with a chimney and a door to access the food and cooking grates within. The firebox is attached to one end, offset slightly lower.

Offsets come in two broad categories: I call them Expensive Offset Smokers (EOS) and Cheap Offset Smokers (COS).

EOS start at about $800 for smaller backyard models and go up to $10,000 or more for the fancy ones on trailers with attached grills, holding ovens, and other bells and whistles. EOS are built from thick heavy steel that retains heat, and have precision dampers so you can fine tune airflow. Some even have a clever method of channeling heat and smoke to one end and back to the other, called reverse flow, to prevent hot spots.

Some of the best are made by Horizon, Jambo, Klose, Lang, Meadow Creek, Peoria, Pitmaker, and Yoder. Many come mounted on trailers and they are popular with caterers and competition cooks. If you buy one, you will need a way to lock it up because they are easily hooked up to a trailer hitch and can be three states away before you wake up in the morning. You can find out more on each in our equipment reviews database.

COS just don't cut it for log burning. They can be found in hardware stores for under $200 sometimes. We cannot recommend these devices even for cooking with charcoal. People buy them because they look like the real deal, but they work so poorly that many folks give up on smoking after the first summer. Stay away from them, please. We know they look cool, but you will be cursing yourself if you buy one. There are plenty of other inexpensive designs that work better in our equipment reviews database. Click here to read more about cheap offsets and why they suck and how to make yours usable if you're stuck with one.

Working with a stickburner

Each EOS works differently, but the procedure goes more or less like this: The firebox should have a grate in it to hold the logs above the bottom by several inches. This is so air can circulate under the logs and so ash can settle to the bottom. The goal is a small hot bed of glowing embers producing pale blue smoke, almost invisible. Lots of belching smoke is not desirable. The best EOS have an insulated firebox.

If possible, turn it so the wind is blowing into the firebox. Start a chimney of hot charcoal, wait til it is covered in gray ash, and pour it into the firebox. If you prefer, you can light some kindling instead. Some folks like to use a big propane flame thrower like the Red Dragon Torch. Starting with charcoal will get you a hot bed of coals and up to stable temp faster. Throw on three splits of well dried hardwood or fruitwood logs about the diameter of a beer can. Some pitmasters remove the bark first. Click here to read more about different types of wood. Open all dampers and doors, even the door to the food chamber, and let the dark black smoke pour out as the logs heat up and ignite.

After about 30 minutes, as the flames rise in the firebox and the smoke color turns to white you can close the cooking chamber and firebox doors and start the process of adjusting the temp. It takes 30 to 60 minutes to get the unit up to temp and load the metal body with heat, longer in cold weather. Feel the outer skin and start the process of learning what it feels like when it is loaded with heat. Some cooks like to spray the cooking chamber with water at this stage to create steam and loosen any grease that may remain from the last cook, but it is far far better to steam clean after the cook than before. Rancid oil will not improve your meat.

Now begin adjusting the firebox damper until the flames are smaller, your logs have turned black, cracked, and started glowing like embers. Then start playing with the chimney damper and try to get the temp in the center of the cooking chamber to about 275°F rather than 225°F at which most charcoal smoking is done. You need a higher temp when burning logs in order to create better tasting smoke. If you get it wrong, you will produce meat that is way too smoky, pungent, bitter, and reminiscent of an ashtray. Use a good digital thermometer.

Each pit has different dynamics, explains Ball "On a Jambo the major temp maintenance is with the smokestack. Very rarely do we touch the firebox damper once we get it to the spot we like. On a meadow creek or a reverse flow you rarely adjust the smoke stack you adjust at the firebox intake. Thermometers are important, but you eyes are your best tool. The color of the smoke tells you how clean your fire is."

You can now throw on your meat. Until you are experienced with your machine, check the temp every 15 minutes or so. As the logs burn down continue to adjust the airflow with dampers and add a new log every 45 minutes or when you see the temp start to dip. If your firebox is insulated you might not need to add wood that often. Make sure ash doesn't block airflow to the wood.

You need to keep these babies clean, so when you are done cooking, spray everything with water and let it steam. Scrub it down with a wire brush and drain away all grease. You can pressure wash, but that can remove the oil that is impregnated in the metal. No soap.

And the next time you hear some hotshot start ragging on gas grills, ask him he quit using lumber.

A note about the wood

My article on wood and smoke discusses wood in general, especially if it is added just for flavor, but if you are going to use wood for both heat and flavor your choice of wood is more crucial. When you are adding a chunk or three of wood to a charcoal smoke, the type of tree make little or no tasteable difference. But if you are usinga stick burner, the type of wood can make a big diference.

In general, hardwoods like oak, and most fruitwoods give the mildest, most agreeable flavors. Hickory is stronger and more pungent, and mesquite stronger still. You also want to use air dried wood, cured at least six months. Kiln dried wood tends to be too dry. The AmazingRibs.com science advisor Dr. Greg Blonder says "Wood containing a bit of moisture creates a bit of steam during combustion, which causes smoke particles to clump together. And larger particles are less likely to flow around the meat so they stick more easily. Plus the water changes the nitrate/nitrogen ratio a bit, which affects the smoke ring, which has no flavor but adds eye appeal. The ring is typically larger with kiln dried wood. Kiln dried is considered to taste smokier." Remember, smokier is not always better.

Most pitmasters start with their local woods and then try others until the find a combination that works with thie pit and their palate.

This page was revised 10/7/2013


Please read before posting a comment or question

grouchy?1) Please use the table of contents or the search box at the top of every page before you ask for help, then please post your question on the appropriate page.

2) Please tell us everything we need to know to answer your question such as the type of cooker and thermometer you are using. Dial thermometers are often off by as much as 50°F so if you are not using a good digital thermometer we probably can't help you. Please read this article about thermometers.

3) If you post a photo, wait a minute for a thumbnail to appear. It will happen even if you don't see it happen.

4) Click here to learn more about our comment system and our privacy promise. Remember, your login info for comments is probably different from your Pitmaster Club login info if you are a member.

Moderators

LeaderDog.org Ad on BBQ site

About this website. AmazingRibs.com is all about the science of barbecue, grilling, and outdoor cooking, with great BBQ recipes, tips on technique, and unbiased equipment reviews. Learn how to set up your grills and smokers properly, the thermodynamics of what happens when heat hits meat, as well as hundreds of excellent tested recipes including all the classics: Baby back ribs, spareribs, pulled pork, beef brisket, burgers, chicken, smoked turkey, lamb, steaks, barbecue sauces, spice rubs, and side dishes, with the world's best buying guide to barbecue smokers, grills, accessories, and thermometers, edited by Meathead.

This site is brought to you by readers like you who support us with their membership in our Pitmaster Club. Click here to learn more about benefits to membership.

Advertising on this site. AmazingRibs.com is by far the most popular barbecue website in the world and one of the 50 most popular food websites in the US according to comScore, Quantcast, Compete, and Alexa. Visitors and pageviews increase rapidly every year. Click here for analytics and advertising info.

© Copyright 2014 by AmazingRibs, Inc. AmazingRibs.com is published by AmazingRibs, Inc., a Florida Corporation. Unless otherwise noted, all text, recipes, photos, and computer code are owned by AmazingRibs, Inc. and fully protected by US copyright law. This means that unless you have written permission to publish or distribute anything on this website you have committed a Federal crime. But we're easy. To get reprint rights, just click here. You do not need permission to link to this website. Note. Some photos of commercial products such as grills were provided by the manufacturers and are under their copyright.