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Important Weights, Measures, Calculators, Conversion Tables, And Rules Of Thumb

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Below are some useful weights, measures, and equivalents that come in handy in the kitchen. Print it and tape it to your pantry door. On the right, you can type in amounts and they will be converted for you. Conversions Calculator©

Enter decimal equivalents for fractions. For example enter 3.5 not 3 1/2.

Convert From
© 2010 by Created by Quincy Adams.
Contact Meathead for permission to use it on your blog or website.

Beware! Ounces can be used for measuring both volume and weigh and they are very different. An ounce of water by volume will weigh MUCH more than an ounce of flour by volume.

It is OK to measure wet ingredients by volume, but dry ingredients are better measured by weight. When measured by volume, dry ingredients can be way off because they contain a lot of air. Some flours are ground into larger bits than others, and they will have more air between grains than finely ground flour. The same is true for salt. Morton’s kosher salt has almost twice as much air than the same volume of table salt because Morton’s kosher salt grains are shaped like flakes while table salt is shaped like cubes, and cubes can pack together more tightly. That’s why professional bakers always weigh flour and why I measure salt for brines by weight.

When ounces are called for in a recipe for liquids it means by volume as in a measuring cup, but when ounces are called for in solids it should, in a professionally written recipe, be measured by weight. So a recipe that calls for 4 ounces of grated cheese means by weight. If you grate cheese and pour it into a measuring cup to the 4 ounce mark, it will weigh only about 2 ounces.

A lot of these equivalents are approximate and that’s what this symbol means ≈. When you see it, read it as “about”.

If you can’t find a conversion you need on this page, you might try one of these

Dry measurements

Remember these are all leveled at the top which means that a tablespoon has a level top, not a big round hill in the center and valleys along the edges.

Cups Decimal Tablespoons Teaspoons
1 1.00 16 48
3/4 0.75 12 36
2/3 0.67 11 32
1/2 0.50 8 24
1/3 0.33 5 16
1/4 0.25 4 12
1/8 0.13 2 6
1/16 0.063 1 3

3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
1 ounce = 28 grams
1 pound = 16 ounces = 454 grams
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds
8 quarts = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel
1 pinch ≈ about 1/16 teaspoon ≈ the amount you can hold between your thumb and two fingers


1 can of beans = is usually 15 ounces undrained ≈ about 10 ounces drained ≈ 1/4 pound dried beans
1 pound dried beans ≈ about 2 cups dried beans ≈ makes about 5 cups soaked beans ≈ makes about 7 cups cooked
1 pound dried beans ≈ 4 cans drained


1 pound cheese ≈ 4.5 cups shredded
1 cup shredded cheese ≈ a little more than 4 ounces by weight
1 cup cottage cheese ≈ 1/2 pound


1 cup cocoa ≈ 1/4 pound
1 ounce chocolate ≈ 1/4 cup grated
1 cup chocolate chips ≈ 6 ounces by weight


Small clove of garlic ≈ 1/2 teaspoon
Medium clove ≈ 1 teaspoon ≈ 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
Large clove ≈ 1.5 teaspoons
Extra-large clove ≈ 2 teaspoons


1 cup all purpose flour ≈ 5 ounces by weight ≈150 grams
1 tablespoon all purpose flour for thickening ≈ 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch
1 pound unsifted flour ≈ 4 cups sifted flour
1 pound cake flour ≈ 4.5 cups sifted cake flour
1 pound whole wheat flour ≈ 3.5 cups whole wheat flour
1 cup cake flour ≈ 7/8 cup all purpose flour + 2 tablespoons corn starch


1 pound trimmed fresh mushrooms
≈ 5 cups chopped
≈ 1 (8 ounce) can sliced mushrooms, drained
≈ 3 ounces dried mushrooms, rehydrated
≈ 2 cups sautéed

Pasta and rice

1 pound dried pasta serves 4 people
4 ounces dry macaroni ≈ 1 cup ≈ 3 cups cooked and drained
4 ounces dry spaghetti or other noodles ≈ 1.75 cups ≈ 4 to 5 cups cooked and drained
1 cup uncooked white rice ≈ 1/2 pound
1 cup uncooked white rice + 2 cups boiling water ≈ 3 cups cooked rice
1 cup brown whole grain rice ≈ 1/2 pound 2.25 cups boiling water = 4 cups of cooked rice


1 gram of saffron ≈ about 450 threads (a.k.a. stigmas, strings, strands, or pieces)
≈ 2 teaspoons of whole saffron threads
≈ 1/2 teaspoon crumbled
≈ 1/4 teaspoon powdered

Salt & Brines

The Salt Converter ©

Here’s a conversion table for when you are measuring salt by volume. Where it says “Salt Amt by Volume” just enter the units of salt in the recipe whether they are teaspoons or cups or whatever (not weights). Then select the type of salt the recipe calls for and you will see the ratio for all the other salts you might have on hand.

Salt Amt by Volume
Salt Type



© 2016 by Created by Prof. Greg Blonder and Kris Coppieters.
*Contact Meathead for permission to use it on your blog or website.

Dry brine. Sprinkle the meat with about 1/2 teaspoon of kosher salt per trimmed pound, wrap in plastic wrap to keep other foods from contacting meat juices, and refrigerate for 2 to 12 hours depending on thickness.Basic wet brine. Add one cup of hot water to a two cup measuring cup. Then pour in salt, any salt, until the water line reaches 1.5 cups. Produces a 6.4% brine.

Making brines is easy with metric measurements and they are easy to scale up or down:

1 liter = 1000 gm = 1 kilogram
6% brine: 1 liter water with 60 grams any salt
4% brine: 1 liter water with 40 grams any salt
Wet brine meat in a ratio of 2.5 parts brine to 1 part meat
So for a 3 pound chicken (about 1.4 kg) use 3.5 kg of a brine or

1/2″ thick meat should be brined for about 1/2 hour in the refrigerator
1″ thick meat should be brined for about 1 hour in the refrigerator
2″ thick meat should be brined for about 4 hours in the refrigerator
3″ thick meat should be brined for about 12 hours in the refrigerator

Wet Cures

We have a wet curing calculator that tells you how much Prague Powder #1 (nitrite) to use in your cure on our page on The Science of Curing.


1 cup granulated white sugar ≈ 8 ounces by weight
1 cup packed dark brown sugar ≈ 6 ounces by weight ≈ 250 grams by weight
1 cup packed dark brown sugar ≈ 1 cup granulated white sugar + 2 tablespoons molasses
1 cup packed light brown sugar ≈ 1 cup of granulated white sugar + 1 tablespoon molasses
1 cup confectioner’s sugar ≈ 1 cup granulated white sugar + 1 teaspoon cornstarch (grind them)
1 cup honey ≈ 3/4 cup sugar + 1/4 cup water
1 cup corn syrup ≈ 1 cup sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup water
Simple syrup is 1 cup of sugar with 1 cup of water thoroughly dissolved


1 stick butter = 8 tablespoons = 4 ounces = 1/4 pound = 113 grams = 1/2 cup by volume = 1/2 cup vegetable oil
To convert unsalted butter to salted, add 1/4 teaspoon of table salt ir 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt to every stick
1 pound solid fat (lard or shortening) ≈ 2 cups


The info below is estimated and can vary depending on the size of the nuts and their freshness.
Fresh nuts have a higher water content.

Almonds. 1 pound unshelled ≈ 1.5 cups nut meats
Almonds. 1 cup ≈ 5.5 ounces

Pecans. 1 pound unshelled ≈ 2.25 cups nut meats
Pecans. 1 cup ≈ 3.8 ounces

Walnuts. 1 pound unshelled ≈ 2 cups nut meats
Walnuts. 1 cup ≈ 3.6 ounces

Cashews. 1 cup ≈ 5.0 ounces
Peanuts. 1 cup ≈ 6.0 ounces

Ground Beef

Ground chuck usually is 15% fat
Ground round usually is about 10% fat
Ground sirloin usually is about 5% fat
1 pound boneless meat ≈ 3 cups cubed meat


Apple. 1 medium apple ≈ 1/2 cup slices or chopped
Bread Crumbs. 1 slice bread ≈ 1/2 cup bread crumbs
Coffee.1 coffee scoop = 2 tablespoons
Gelatin. 1 tablespoon = 1 envelope = 4 sheets leaf gelatin
Herbs. 2 to 3 parts fresh herbs ≈ 1 part dried (most of the time)
Mustard. 1 tablespoon mustard ≈ 1 teaspoon dry mustard
Onion. 1 large onion ≈ 4″ diameter ≈ 1 1/4 cup chopped
Popcorn. 1/4 cup popcorn ≈ 5 cups cooked
Tomatoes. 1 pound tomatoes ≈ 1.5 cups chopped
Yeast. 1 packet active dry yeast = 2.25 teaspoons

Wet measurements

Wet volumetric measurements like tablespoons, teaspoons, allow for a little bubble in the center but the edges of the liquid should meet the edges of the spoon. In cups it is the center of the meniscus that you measure too. The meniscus is the upward slope where the liquid contacts the sides.

Cups Decimal Ounces Tablespoons Teaspoons Milliliters Grams
1 1.00 8 16 48 237 236.56
3/4 0.75 6 12 36 177 177.42
2/3 0.67 5 11 32 158 157.71
1/2 0.50 4 8 24 118 118.28
1/3 0.33 3 5 16 79 78.85
1/4 0.25 2 4 12 59 59.14
1/8 0.13 1 2 6 30 29.57
1/16 0.063 0.5 1 3 15 14.785

1 dash ≈ 3 drops ≈ 1/16 teaspoon
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
1 shot of whiskey = 2 tablespoons
1 jigger of whiskey = 3 tablespoons
1 pint = 2 cups = 1 pound (a pint’s a pound the world around)
1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups = 32 fluid ounces = 0.95 liters
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 fluid ounces = 3.785 liters = 3785 cubic centimeters
1 liter = 100 centiliters = 1000 milliliters = 34 fluid ounces = 1.0 quarts
1 #10 can = 0.75 gallons


1 fluid ounce of water weighs 1.043 dry ounces = 0.0652 pounds = 29.574 grams
1 gram of water = 0.0022 pounds = 0.035 ounces
1 mg of water = 0.000035 ounces


Light cream ≈ 18% butterfat
Light whipping cream ≈ 26-30% butterfat
Heavy cream = whipping cream ≈ 36% or more butterfat
Double cream = extra-thick double cream = clotted or Devonshire cream ≈ 42% butterfat
1 cup cream ≈ 3/4 cup milk + 1/4 cup unsalted butter (use only in cooking)
1 cup buttermilk ≈ 1 cup plain yogurt ≈ 1 cup milk + 1 tablespoons lemon juice
1 cup half and half ≈ 1/2 cup cream + 1/2 cup milk


Tomato Juice. 1 cup tomato juice ≈ 1/2 cup tomato sauce + 1/2 cup water
Lemon or Lime Juice. 1 medium lemon, lime ≈ 2 tablespoons of juice ≈ 1 ounce
Orange Juice. 1 medium orange ≈ 4 tablespoons juice ≈ 2 ounces


1 large egg ≈ 2 ounces by volume ≈ 3 tablespoons
1 large egg’s white ≈ 2 tablespoons
1 large egg yolk ≈ 1 tablespoon
1 cup ≈ 4 to 6 whole eggs without shells


A classic vinaigrette is 3 parts oil and 1 part vinegar

Wine & Whiskey

1 bottle of wine = 750 ml = 25.3 ounces
1 barrel of wine ≈ 60 gallons ≈ 300 bottles
1 ton of grapes ≈ 2 barrels of wine
1 barrel of bourbon ≈ 53 gallons ≈ 200 liters per barrel ≈ 267 bottles
1 fifth = 25.6 ounces


Click here for the ultimate Food Temperature Safety Guide.

Conversion formulae

Celsius or Centigrade = (Fahrenheit – 32) / 1.8
Fahrenheit = (Celsius x 1.8) + 32°C


Notice how these 4 benchmarks are inversions of each other:

04°C = 40°F
16°C = 61°F
28°C = 82°F
40°C = 104°F (OK, not quite an inversion but easy to remember)

Important temperature equivalents for temps common on this site

425°F = 218°C = hot oven
325°F = 163°C = temp for cooking poultry
225°F = 107°C = ideal smoking temperature
212°F = 100°C = water boils
203°F = 95°C = pork butt, beef brisket, and beef ribs are done
170°F = 77°C = poultry dark meat is done
160°F = 71°C = poultry white meat is done
140°F = 60°C = medium
130°F = 54°C = medium rare
72°F = 22°C = room temperature
40°F = 04°C = max fridge temp
32°F = 0°C = water freezes
0°F = -18°C

Cooking at altitude

Boiling point goes down about 2°F for every 1,000 feet above sea level.


1 quart ≈ 16 Kingsford briquets
1 Weber chimney ≈ 5 quarts ≈ 80 briquets
Figure 100 square inches of cooking surface per person when buying a grill

Slow cookers & crockpots

Low. Approximately 200°F
Medium. Approximately 250°F
High. Approximately 300°F

If there is a lot of liquid in the crock, the water temp will rise to 212°F and stay there no matter what temp you have on the dial.


1 centimeter = 0.4 inches
1 meter = 100 centimeters = 1000 millimeters = 3.28 feet
1 inch = 25.4 millimeters = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = 0.305 meters


1 gram of carbohydrates contains 3.75 calories
1 gram of fat contains 9 calories
1 gram of protein contains 4 calories
1 gram of alcohol contains 7 calories

Ground Meat Calculator

Enter the amounts in yellow (works for pounds or kilos)
Total weight of meat (enter fractions as decimals)
Estimated % of fat in the meat
% of fat you want in the meat (we recommend 30%)
Weight of fat to be added
Calculations in case you’re curious
Weight of fat in meat (marbeling)
Weight of meat minus the marbling
Total weight of fat including marbling and added fat
TOTAL weight of meat after added fat

Related articles

Published On: 10/9/2017 Last Modified: 5/21/2022

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  • Meathead - Founder and publisher of, Meathead is known as the site's Hedonism Evangelist and BBQ Whisperer. He is also the author of the New York Times Best Seller "Meathead, The Science of Great Barbecue and Grilling", named one of the "100 Best Cookbooks of All Time" by Southern Living.


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