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Digital Thermometers:
Stop Guessing!

thermopop bbq thermometer

Gold BBQ AwardA good digital thermometer keeps me from serving dry overcooked food or dangerously undercooked food. You can get a professional grade, fast and precise splashproof thermometer like the Thermopop (above) for about $24. The Thermapen (below), the Ferrari of instant reads, is about $96. It's is the one you see all the TV chefs and all the top competition pitmasters using. Click here to read more about types of thermometer and our ratings and reviews.

bbq thermapen

GrillGrates Take You To
The Infrared Zone

BBQ_grill_grates

Gold BBQ AwardGrillGrates(TM) amplify heat, prevent flareups, make flipping foods easier, produce great grill marks, keep small foods from committing suicide, kill hotspots, are easier to clean, flip over to make a fine griddle, smolder wood right below the meat, and can be easily removed and moved from one grill to another. Every gas grill and pellet smoker needs them.

Click here to read more about what makes these grates so special and how they compare to other cooking surfaces.

The Smokenator:
A Necessity For All Weber Kettles

smokenator bbq system

Gold BBQ Award If you have a Weber Kettle, you need the amazing Smokenator and Hovergrill. The Smokenator turns your grill into a first class smoker, and the Hovergrill can add capacity or be used to create steakhouse steaks.

Click here to read more.

The Pit Barrel Cooker

pit barrel c ooker bbqAbsolutely positively without a doubt the best bargain on a smoker in the world.

This baby will cook circles around the cheap offset sideways barrel smokers in the hardware stores because temperature control is so much easier (and that's because smoke and heat go up, not sideways).

Gold BBQ AwardBest of all, it is only $269 delivered to your door!

Click here to read our detailed review and the raves from people who own them.

scissor tongs

Best. Tongs. Ever.

Gold BBQ AwardMade of rugged 1/8" thick aluminum, 20" long, with four serious rivets, mine show zero signs of weakness after years of abuse. I use them on meats, hot charcoal, burning logs, and with the mechanical advantage that the scissor design creates, I can easily pick up a whole packer brisket. Click here to read more.

steak knives for bbq

The Best Steakhouse Knives

Gold BBQ AwardThe same knives used at Peter Luger, Smith & Wollensky, and Morton's. Machine washable, high-carbon stainless steel, hardwood handle. And now they have the AmazingRibs.com imprimatur. Click for more info.

black's brisket

You can see the two muscles, flat and point, in this whole packer brisket at the legendary Black's Barbecue in Lockhart, TX, where they've been smoking brisket since 1932.


Barbecue Beef Brisket Texas Style

"Anytime you got nothing to do - and lots of time to do it - come on up." Mae West

By Meathead Goldwyn

Summary. Barbecue beef brisket is the national dish of the Republic of Texas. Here's the recipe for how to cook it the way the BBQ champions and BBQ restaurants cook it. Recipe Type. Entree. Tags. Beef, brisket, BBQ, barbecue, barbeque, grilling, smoking, cookout, party, dinner, smoker, grill.

Brisket is the national food of the Republic of Texas and a whole brisket is a great excuse for a party. A whole barbecue beef brisket is a huge clod of cow that can come off the pit almost black, looking more like a meteorite than a meal. But it is not burnt, and beneath the crust is the most tender, juicy, smoky meat. If you cook it right. And that's a BIG IF.

Like a Clint Eastwood cowboy, brisket is unforgiving. Cook it right and it is tender, juicy, and flavorful. Cook it wrong and it is like a wrangler's leather chaps. To help you get it right, I have written this book-length article/recipe/technique so that you understand all the concepts. Don't let it scare you. Brisket mastery is possible, even on a gas grill.

Briskets are from the chest area of the steer between the forelegs. There are two per animal, and these boneless pectoral muscles get a lot of work, so there isn't much fat marbling within the muscle and there's a lot of connective tissue in and around the muscle fibers. That's why they are so tough. Much of the world's brisket is made into corned beef, pastrami, or pot roast, but it is also a fine cut for barbecue, and it is required in Kansas City Barbecue Society (KCBS) cooking contests (about 500 across the nation) along with pork ribs, pulled or chopped pork, and chicken.

Beware: Corned Beef is brisket that has been corned, which is to say it has been preserved with salt and flavorings. It is not suitable for this recipe! To make Texas brisket you need raw beef. Click here for a recipe for making your own corned beef, click here for making corned beef hash, click here for corned beef and cabbage, click here for an amazing recipe for smoking corned beef to make pastrami, and click here for making Rockin' Reuben pastrami sandwiches.

Your butcher probably offers three cuts of brisket, a whole "packer" brisket, a "flat" (sometimes called "first cut"), and a "point" (sometimes called "second cut" or the "deckle"). Each cut needs to be cooked differently.

The Hunk O' Flat (HOF) or Hunk O' Point (HOP)

A whole packer brisket is a lot of meat! Many grocers cut up the whole brisket into smaller more manageable sizes. I often see cuts from the flat or point running anywhere from three to six pounds. I call them a HOF, for Hunk O' Flat, or HOP for Hunk 'O Point. HOF is sometimes labeled "brisket first cut" and HOP is sometimes labeled "brisket second cut".

HOFs seem to be more common than HOPs. If the meat case has both, chose the HOP. It has more marbling in the muscle and will be more tender, flavorful, and juicy. If you see only flats, ask the butcher if you can order points. HOFs are usually tough and it is hard to make them tender.

My grocer usually has a number of HOFs in the three to four pound range, perfect for serving a small family. If you are cooking a three to four pound HOF, there is much less waste and shrinkage, so buy 1/2 pound or more for each person. But don't ask your butcher for a HOF, that's just a term you and I use.

The HOF is practically pure muscle and has little marbling which is what makes meat tender and juicy. Most people who buy it are making pot roast by simmering it for hours in liquid. But you want the Texas taste, right? If you must do a HOF, then try really really hard to get Certified Angus, USDA Choice, USDA Prime, or even Wagyu beef. They have better marbling. Chose a thick HOF, look for marbling and uniform thickness so one edge won't dry out. If the meat is not on a plastic tray and you can flex it, select one that is floppy. The technique for cooking a small hunk is pretty much the same as cooking a packer.

The whole packer brisket

When you buy a whole "packer's cut" brisket, it weighs eight to 16 pounds and comes in an airtight Cryovac plastic wrap. There is a cap of fat on one side that can be up to 1" thick, and it is trimmed pretty close to fat free on the other side. The larger briskets usually come from older steers and tend to be tougher.

Enzymes within muscles tenderize meat as it ages. Most packers come in airtight plastic Cryovac bags and the label will usually show the "Packing Date". After a steer is slaughtered it is broken down and packed, usually within 24 hours, although if it was slaughtered late on Friday, it might not be packed til Monday. Competition cooks who do several briskets a week during the season tell me the best are 30 to 45 days old. So they often wet age their meat in the fridge in the basement. Click here for more about aging beef.

brisket_anatomy

There are two briskets per animal, and two distinct muscles in a whole packer brisket: (A) A long flat rectangular lean muscle that sometimes comes to a point that is called the flat (pectoralis profundus), and (B) a narrower, thicker, fattier, oval shaped muscle called the point (pectoralis superficialis). Got it? The flat is pointy and the point is oval. Go figure. In the illustration above, the jagged white line is about where butchers cut packers when the break them down into smaller hunks of flat and point.

Click on the images below
to see enlargements.
A raw packer brisket for barbecue with the parts labeled

A whole 12-pound packer brisket untrimmed fat side up, as it arrived from the packer. The cutting board is 20" x 14 ". The fat cap is 1/4" to 1/2" thick. The flat is A and the point rests on top of the right side of the flat in the oval B. As you can see, the packer trimmed it quickly and left some meat bare. Not the end of the world.

The grain of a brisket for barbecue

The same brisket fat side down. This side is usually close to fat free, although there may be some tough silverskin that must be removed. The flat is A and the point is B. The grain runs in the direction of the white line. Notice the fat vein that runs between the flat and the point.

Brisket for barbecue side view

This side view looks right at the end of the flat with the point rising in the background. Notice that the flat ranges from 1/4" think on the right to about 1.5" on the left, and the point is more than 5" thick. Below is a finished example.

finished brisket

The point lies on top of the flat and there is a layer of fat separating the two muscles. The flat makes nice uniform slices (think corned beef and pastrami), perfect for sandwiches or fanning out on a plate. Because one end is a lot thinner than the other, it often dries out as the thicker part of the clod cooks. For this reason, and also because the striation of the two muscles run in different directions, some cooks remove the point before or after cooking. It comes off easily along the fault line of fat that separates them. Some slice it separately and some chop it, sometimes mixing in fat from the layer between muscles. Regardless, the thin end of the flat will almost always be a little lean and chewy.

Some top competitors will age the meat in its Cryovac in the refrigerator for 30 to 60 days from the packing date to allow the enzymes to start breaking down the tough fibers and develop more complex flavors. Do not try this unless the meat is packed in its original airtight Cryovac package.

Nothin' but controversy

As with anything barbecue, there is controversy surrounding brisket. Pitmasters disagree on several major scores:

Meat grade. Beef is graded based on the age of the animal and the amount of fat marbling. Click here for more about beef grades. The more marbling, the better because fat makes the meat more tender, flavorful, and juicy. The most common grades, from lowest to highest are: Select, choice, prime, and Wagyu.

I cannot stress this enough: When shopping for brisket, go for the highest grade you can find, and hand pick the slab with the most fat striation visible. If it is not labeled, chances are it is select. Avoid it. Brisket is the classic example of "garbage in garbage out". Please don't write to me and say you can't figure out why your brisket was tough if you did not buy USDA Choice or better.

A lot of restaurants and competitors prefer Certified Angus Beef (CAB) because the certification process requires meat to be choice grade or above.

Prime and Wagyu are even more marbled and will be more juicy, so if you can find it, and if you can afford it, go for it. A lot of the top competition teams are now using prime or Wagyu.

But grade alone will not make the meat tender. Brisket is just an ornery piece of meat and if you want it tender, you've got to work. Tasty is easy. Tender is not.

Wet aging. The top competitors buy only whole packers vacuum packed in Cryovac plastic. They find out the packing date, which is often on the label, and if it is not should be available if you ask. They let it age in the fridge at temps between 35 and 38°F because there are enzymes in the meat that help tenderize it. This is especially important for the flat muscle which is usually low in intramuscular fat.

Trim. Some cooks like to leave the entire fat cap on the meat as insulation, trimming what remains before serving. This helps moderate the heat during cooking. Others trim most of it off before cooking, leaving a layer of 1/8" to 1/4", reasoning that spices and seasoning on the fat cap will never penetrate it and then it is wasted when you trim off the fat at the table. Some even remove much of the fat layer between the two muscles. I trim the cap to 1/4" or less. It helps seal in moisture.

brisket rubRub. Before it is cooked, many of the best Texas barbecue joints simply use "Dalmatian rub": Liberal amounts of Morton's kosher salt and coarsely cracked black pepper. For them, stylin' is to add some cayenne and garlic powder to the rub. Some leave it on the meat overnight, but others just season the meat and toss it on the pit. On the competition circuit many cooks use a complex secret concoction of herbs and spices that give a little spark to the bark, the flavorful crust that forms after all that cooking. I use my Big Bad Beef Rub.

Slather. You can put a rub right on bare meat, or you can help it stick by moistening the meat with a little water, or you can put down a slather of mustard or ketchup, or you can use cooking oil.

My experience that they make little or no difference in the final outcome. Mustard is water, vinegar, and maybe white wine (all mostly water) with mustard powder mixed in. The amount of mustard powder is so small that by the time the water steams off and drips away, the mustard powder remaining is miniscule. If you want a mustard flavor, you will do much better by simply sprinkling it on the meat.

I usually use a cooking oil because it helps keep meat from sticking to the grates and because most of the herbs and spices in typical rubs are oil soluble, not water soluble.

Then again, salt is water soluble and, as we explain in our articles on marinades and brines, salt is pretty much the only thing that penetrates meat more than a fraction of an inch (with seafood being the notable exception). So using mustard might help dissolve the salt and using oil might help dissolve the hebrs and spices.

Far more important is what is in the rub than under the rub. So use whatever you want for a slather.

Pump. Many competition cooks like to inject brisket with an internal marinade by using large hypodermics and other gimcracks. These "pumps" add moisture, break down tough fibers, and add flavor. Many of the champs have been injecting the meat with a product called Fab B Light or Butcher BBQ Brisket Marinade, both moisturizers, tenderizers, and flavor enhancers. Fab B contains hydrolyzed soy protein, vegetable oil, sodium phosphates, monosodium glutamate, autolyzed yeast extract, xanthan gum, disodium inosinate, and guanylate. Butcher contains hydrolyzed vegetable protein (hydrolyzed soy and corn protein and salt, with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil [cottonseed, soybean] added), monosodium glutamate, sodium phosphate, and xanthan gum. Some traditionalists think this is way too Barry Bonds and are repulsed by the idea. The results speak for themselves. They are winning. A lot. If you choose to inject and don't want all the chemicals, don't use anything very flavorful, just plain beef broth. In most recipes I specify low sodium broth, but actually the saltier version is better in this case. It is like brining and the salt helps retain moisture as well as enhances flavor. Insert the needle parallel to the grain so it doesn't leave tracks in the finished meat.

Fat cap up or down, on or off? The argument is as old as Texas. I asked my beef consultant, Dr. Antonio Mata, a meat scientist and a former Consulting Technical Coordinator to the National Cattlemen's Beef Association, if fat will melt and penetrate the muscle fibers. His reply was simple and unequivocal. "No way." I asked him to elaborate. "The fibers are packed too close for large fat molecules to squeeze in. Since about 75% of the muscle is made of water, and oil and water don't mix, it is just going to melt and run off." Click here for more on the subject of fat caps.

This melting is called rendering. We know that rendered fat can run over bare muscle, basting it, but little will go to the underside of the meat. Most of it will just run down the sides and drips off. So the only basting is on the sides.

We know that all the fat does not render during cooking.

We know that rub applied to a thick fat cap will not contact the meat because the fat is a barrier. If the fat cap is very thin some might get through.

We know that most spices and herbs in a rub are more soluble in fat than in water.

We know that warm spice rubbed fat is yummy.

We know that the fat can inhibit moisture loss from evaporation and since the stall is caused by evaporation, a fat cap can slow the onset of the stall and help you speed through it.

We know that bark will not form on fat because bark is mostly dried surface meat.

We know that when cooking with heat directly below, as with a Weber Smokey Mountain or Kamado, the fat can absorb heat and protect meat from drying out.

We know that diet conscious diners will trim thick layers of fat if the meat is served on a plate and not on a sandwich. That means the rub will be removed. They may leave a thin layer on.

We know that when cooking two meats, one above the other, the fat can drip down and baste the meat below. We know that beans that sit below melting fat are magical.

So what's the right thing to do? I say, trim most of the fat but leave a thin layer, 1/8 to 1/4", that diners will not remove, that will absorb rub, and I put it between the heat and the meat, with beans underneath. Sometimes I even flip the meat midway through the cook just so nobody can win the argument.

Point. The point end is usually twice as thick as the other end, so by the time it is properly cooked the other end is overcooked. Some cooks remove the point layer by sliding a knife through the fat layer that runs between the flat and point. They cook both muscles side by side rather than one on top of the other. Since the flat is pretty even thickness, it cooks more evenly than with the point on top making it thicker on one end. They then cook the point separately and use it for "burnt ends" (described below). I leave the packer intact.

Cooking temp. Many competitors swear that low and slow, around 225°F for 18 to 20 hours for a whole packer, is necessary to make the meat tender and juicy. Legendary "Barbecue King", Walter Jetton, Lyndon Johnson's caterer, advocated cooking brisket at 275°F and up. John Fullilove of Smitty's Market confesses that he cranks the heat over 300°F and knocks out his briskets in as little as 8 hours. I have seen competitors take home big prize checks with brisket cooked at 350°F. The bottom line is that cooking temp seems to be less important than other factors. But because it is hard to make brisket tender, I advocate for low and slow until you have mastered the techniques and are certain that your meat source is superior. I cook at 225°F.

Mop. A lot of cooks like to keep their meat wet by mopping it with a baste. They say the mop replaces moisture that evaporates. Others say mops cool the meat and slow the cooking. The AmazingRibs.com science advisor, Dr. Greg Blonder has proven that wet meat holds more smoke, so mopping or spritzing with water, beef broth, or apple juice will yield a smokier brisket. Click here to read my article on basting.

Crutch. The Texas Crutch is a technique for speeding the cooking and moisturizing the meat. The concept is that you smoke for a few hours, and when the meat hits about 150°F, wrap it tightly in heavy-duty foil (never plastic wrap) with a little beef broth, apple juice, white wine, or light beer, and let it braise in the foil in the cooker.

If you don't wrap, when the meat hits about 150°F moisture rises to the surface and cools the meat by evaporation, like sweat on an athlete. The meat then sits there stuck at 150 to 160°F for up to 5 hours. This stall is a maddening point in the process when the meat seems like it is stuck. The temp just doesn't rise for hours at a time. This is freaky and a lot of novices panic when it happens. Many people think the stall is cased by melting fat or collagen. It is not. Click here to learn more about the stall.

The down side of wrapping is that the foil softens the crusty bark. You can overcome that by placing the meat over high heat for about 10 minutes per side just before slicing. I think wrapping in foil and resting in a faux cambro is essential for tender juicy brisket.

You do not need to do this. If you don't you'll end up with a firmer crust, but you risk slightly drier and tougher meat. Brisket is the only meat I crutch. In competitions, all the teams crutch their brisket as well as pork shoulder and ribs.

Purists say it is not traditional. Spare me. Cooking with charcoal in a steel tube is not traditional either. You want tradition? Go dig a pit.

When is it done? Steaks from along the back of the animal are done at 130 to 135F, at which they are most tender and juicy. But that muscle is more tender and juice because it doewn't have to work hard. The brisket, the pectorals, get a lot more work and have a lot more tough connective tissue that needs to be softened, so you just cant' take it off at the same temps as steaks. For more on this dichotomy, read my article on meat science.

Old time pitmasters say bisket is done when it is done. They say you really can't tell by temperature. Each brisket is different. They can tell when it is ready by feel. Some talk about a gelatinous bounce it has when they poke it because the connective tissues have melted. They call it the "wabba wabba" point. Others stick a fork in the side of the flat and twist. If it turns easily, it is ready. Yes, that's where the expression "stick a fork in it" came from. "Fast Eddy" Maurin says he waits until it is "as soft as buttah."

The rest of us have to rely on temperature, and despite their bravado, the top pitmasters on the competition circuit all use digital thermometers to help them. A lot will depend on the quality of the meat, how moist the air is in the cooker, if you injected, and how long you crutched. I've heard skilled cooks tell me every number from 195 to 205°F. A lot of top competitors swear by 203°F, and I have noticed that something magic does seem to happen at this number. At this temp, the thermometer probe glides in effortlessly, like buttah (once it gets through the bark). If it never gets tender, pull it off before it hits 205°F.

Holding. Then it comes off the cooker, it cools a bit at room temp in a pan so it stops cooking, and it gets wrapped in foil and sits in a faux cambro, an insulated box, for at least 1 or 2 hours. The foil captures natural jus for use in a sauce, and holding the meat allows the parts that have dried out during cooking to absorb some of the juices. This is a different phenomenon than resting meat that has just come off the grill for five minutes before slicing.

Slicing. When it is cooked, controversy reigns over slicing. Brisket is easier to chew if you cut it perpendicular to the grain. Cut with the grain and it can be stringy and chewy. The problem is that there are two muscles, the flat and the point, and the grains run in different directions. Most folks slice from the thicker, point end into about 1/8" to 1/4" thick slices. Some folks run a knife through the fat layer between the point and flat and separate them and slice each separately. Some folks cut off the flat where the point meats it and then they rotate it so the cut is on the side and they slice through the point and flat from the side. Below are photos of how Barry Sorkin of Smoque BBQ in Chicago slices his incredible succulent brisket. That's the way I do it.

Sauce. To some people, it's not barbecue unless it has a sweet red sauce on it. Not to Texans. "In Texas we celebrate great brisket by not messing with it" says Daniel Vaughn, the barbecue critic for Texas Monthly. "If it's done right then you slice it pencil thick and slap it on a piece of butcher paper. It's naked, quivering and vulnerable, so it has to stand on its own." In some places a thin decidedly not sweet tomatoey gravy like jus is tolerated.

Recipe for Texas-style brisket

In the recipe below I have chosen a path that yields excellent results for me and my readers. Some may dispute my choices, but if you start here, you can then riff on the controversies above. If your effort yields meat that is a bit dry or tough, try again. Sometimes it's the steer, not the recipe or the cook! Cattle are not widgets. But remember, garbage in, garbage out. Start with choice grade beef or better.

Yield. 12 servings if you are cooking a whole packer of about 12 pounds. Calculate about 1 pound of meat or more per person. There will be significant loss, up to 20% from fat trimming and up to 40% from shrinkage. You'll end up with about half a pound per person, more than enough and maybe you'll have some leftovers.

Preparation time. 5 minutes to apply the rub. If you can let the rub soak in for an hour or two, that would be nice. Overnight is better. You can make the sauce while the meat is cooking.

Cooking time. About 10 to 12 hours for a flat at 225°F if you wrap it tightly in foil at about 150°F, depending on your cooker, humidity and other variables. If you do not foil the meat it can take up to 12 to 14 hours. For whole packers, which are thicker, allow up to 14 hours if wrapped, up to 18 hours if nekkid. On an electric it can move a bit faster because it is so humid in there. Remember it is not the weight of a piece of meat that determines cooking time, it is thickness. Read more about what determines cooking times. Start early. If it gets done early, you can hold it in a faux cambro or in an oven at 170 to 200°F (see rest time, below). But the rules of thumb can vary significantly by as much as 25% depending on how thick it is at the thickest point, and the orneriness of the particular steer whose flesh you are honoring. There are too many variables to be precise. Once you have done the same cut on the same cooker several times, you'll be able to better predict.

Resting time. When the meat is cooked, let it rest, wrapped in foil, wrapped in a towel, buried in a plastic cooler, for another 3 to 4 hours. You can also let it rest in foil in an oven, indoor or out, at 170 to 200°F. This is a great fudge factor that lets you take the meat off when it is ready and hold it until the guests are ready. Resting also helps tenderize.

Toolkit
1 grill or smoker with lots of fuel
6 feet of heavy-duty aluminum foil
16 ounces by weight of hard wood chunks, chips, or pellets for smoking
1 digital meat thermometer
1 digital oven thermometer
1 plastic beer cooler bigger than the brisket (not styrofoam, which could melt)
1 towel or blanket
1 long, thin, sharp knife
Cooking log
1 alarm clock
1 lawn chair
1 good book
6 pack of beer
1 pair of shades
Sun tan lotion
Tunes
A crowd of hungry friends

The Meat
1/2 cup Big Bad Beef Rub
1 whole packer brisket about 12 pounds, untrimmed, USDA Choice grade or higher
1/8 cup of beef broth per pound of raw meat for injecting
1/2 cup of beef broth for use in the Texas Crutch

The Sauce
2 cups of Texas Barbecue Mop-Sauce (you can make this days in advance) for a packer, or 1 cup for a HOF

Sides
Brisket is great with potatoes. For sandwiches, use thick slices of sturdy bread or kaiser rolls, and let the gravy soak in and get sloppy. Garnish with grilled ancho and red bell peppers or caramelized onions.

Do this
1) Trim. Rinse the meat and dry it with paper towels. If you have a packer, trim off most of the fat cap but leave about 1/4". If you are trimming a packer, until you get the hang of it you might cut off some of the meat while trimming. No harm, no foul. Some cooks attempt to remove some of the fat layer between the flat and the point by slicing them apart from both sides, but not slicing all the way through so they remain attached. If you are competing, trim the flat to about 9" wide in order to fit the width of the standard 9" x 9" turn-in box after shrinkage. On the meaty side, slice off any silverskin, a tough thin membrane. If you have a HOF, you probably will not need to trim much at all. Just make sure there is no silverskin on the meaty side. I freeze the fat, save it, and grind it if I think my burgers need more fat. I render some of it over low heat in a pan and freeze that too. I use it to paint my steaks just before searing.

2) Pump. I always inject briskets with beef broth. This meat takes so long to cook the extra moisture is needed to keep it from dehydrating, and the salt helps the meat hold on to moisture and enhances flavor. Use broth only. No need to add spices juices or other flavorings. All we want here is moisture. We don't want the fluid to mask the flavor of the meat. If you have a hypodermic for injecting meat, now's the time to use it. Pump in about 1 ounce of beef broth per pound of raw meat by inserting the needle parallel to the grain in several locations about 1" apart and back it out as you press the plunger. Do it in the sink and be careful so you don't get squirted in the eye.

3) Rub. Before you apply the Big Bad Beef Rub, notice the direction of the grain of the flat and remember this so you can carve it perpendicular to the grain. Coat the meat lightly with oil and sprinkle the rub liberally on all exposed meat and rub it in. Not much sense in wasting rub on the fat since most of it will melt off or be cut off by your guests. I coat the meat with oil first because many of the flavors in the rub are oil soluble. Some folks use a slather of mustard first, but it is water based and will not dissolve the flavors as well as oil. If you can, let the meat sit for 1 to 2 hours to allow the rub to penetrate a bit and form a moist paste that will become your crust. I strongly recommend you use a digital remote thermometer such as the Maverick, and insert the probe with the tip centered in the thickest part of the meat.

4) Preheat. OK, before we begin, it is important to note that brisket is an inexact science, and the timing can vary significantly depending on the size of your brisket, it's moisture and fat content, and the nature of your cooker, not to mention the accuracy of your thermometer. But the method I describe has a long period of resting in an insulated beer cooler, and that time is flexible so you can use that buffer time to keep dinner on schedule. Keep the meat chilled. Chilled meat attracts more smoke (read about this in my article on smoke). If you are using a grill, set it up for indirect cooking. Click here to see how to set up a gas grill. Here's how to set up a charcoal grill, and here's how to set up a bullet smoker like the Weber Smokey Mountain. Get the temp stabilized at about 235°F. We want to cook at about 225°F, but the temp will drop a bit once you load in the cold meat.

5) Cook. Put the meat on the cooker. On a smoker with a water pan, put the meat right above the water. Place the oven temp probe on the grate next to the meat. Add about 4 ounces of wood right after the meat goes on. When the smoke stops, add 4 ounces more for the first 2 hours, usually about every 30 minutes. Keep an eye on the water in the pan. Don't let it dry out. After 3 hours, turn the meat over if the color is different from top to bottom. Otherwise leave it alone. No need to mop, baste, or spritz. It just lowers the temp of the meat. The meat temp will move steadily upward to the stall, somewhere around 150°F. Once in the stall zone, it will seem to take forever to rise. The stall can last 5 hours and the temp may not rise more than 5°F!

6) Texas Crutch. After about 2 to 4 hours, by which time the meat will have hit about 150°F, take it off and wrap it tightly in a double layer of heavy-duty foil. We have learned that the more airspace around the meat the more juice leaks out. Pour 1/2 cup of beef broth around the sides of the meat being careful not to wash off the rub before you seal the foil. Then crimp it tight and put the wrapped meat back on the smoker or move it to an indoor oven at 225°F. This step, called the Texas Crutch, slightly braises the meat, but most importantly, it prevents surface evaporation which cools the meat and causes the stall. If you wrap the meat at 150°F it will power right through the stall and cut your cooking time significantly.

7) Rest. When the temp hits 200 to 205°F, get your plastic beer cooler, line it with a towel, blanket, or crumpled newspaper and put the meat, still in foil, into the cooler on top of the lining. Leave the thermometer probe in. If the foil is leaking fluids, put the meat in a large pan first. The lining is important to prevent the plastic from warping or cracking. Close the lid and let the hot meat sit in the cooler for at least 2 to 3 hours until you are ready to eat. Do not let the temp of the meat fall below 150°F while it is in the cooler or else you could get a tummy ache. If you have a tight cooler it should hold the meat well above 160°F for hours.

barbecue brisket burnt ends8) Optional: Burnt ends. Burnt ends (right) are amazingly flavorful bite-size crispy cubes. Originally they were simply edges and ends that were overcooked and trimmed off and munched by the kitchen staff. If there were any leftover, they were given away for free. Then, in 1970, in his marvelous book American Fried, Calvin Trillin wrote the following about Arthur Bryant's restaurant in Kansas City "The main course at Bryant's, as far as I'm concerned, is something that is given away for free -- the burned edges of the brisket. The counterman just pushes them over to the side as he slices the beef, and anyone who wants them helps himself. I dream of those burned edges. Sometimes, when I'm in some awful overpriced restaurant in some strange town -- all of my restaurant-finding techniques having failed, so that I'm left to choke down something that costs seven dollars and tastes like a medium-rare sponge -- a blank look comes over my face: I have just realized that at that very moment someone in Kansas City is being given those burned edges free."

Before the resting period, remove the point from the flat by slicing horizontally along the vein of fat between the two muscles. They should come apart easily. Now cut the point into 1/2" to 3/4" cubes. Discard any pieces that are too fatty. Put the cubes in an aluminum pan and pour in about 1/4 cup of your sauce and 1/4 cup of the drippings from the crutch. If you wish, add a hunk of the beef fat you trimmed at the start of the process or cheat and add bacon fat. Put it back on the cooker in a hot spot and close the lid. If the fire is out you can put the pan on top of a burner over medium low heat. Stir them every 15 minutes or so. Let them get dark and crispy, but don't let them burn. When they're done, put them in the faux cambro with the flat.

9) Slice. Don't slice until the last possible minute. Brisket dries out quickly once it is cut. If you wish, you can firm up the crust a bit by unwrapping the meat and putting it over a hot grill or under a broiler for a few minutes on each side. Watch it closely so it doesn't burn. When your guests are ready, heat up your Texas Barbecue Mop-Sauce and bring it to the table. Turn the meat fat side up so the juices will run onto the meat as you slice.

Slicing is a bit of a challenge because there are two muscles and the grain flows in different directions. There are two good ways to slice:

(a) This is my favorite method, shown in the pictures at right. Start slicing the flat, cutting across the grain so the meat will fall apart in your mouth about 1/4" thick, about the thickness of a pencil. As you approach the area where the point muscle lies on top of the flat, stop and cut the remaining hunk in half. Slice the center section crosswise, in the opposite direction that you sliced the flat. Then slice the remaining butt section in the same direction you sliced the flat.

(b) Some competitors prefer this method of slicing. Run a knife between the flat and the point and separate the two muscles. Trim off excess fat. Slice them separately across the grain about 1/4" thick. The meat should hold together, not fall apart or crumble. It should pull apart with a gentle tug. If the first slice falls apart, cut thicker slices. Here is a picture of the brisket entry by KCBS President Candy Weaver. Nice even slices of flat with the smoke ring on top surrounded by chunks of burnt ends.

barbecue brisket turn in box

10) Serving. If the meat is perfectly cooked it should be moist and juicy. You can serve it simply sliced on a plate or as a sandwich made with Texas Toast. If you wish, drizzle some Texas Barbecue Mop-Sauce mixed with some of the drippings from the crutch on top of the meat (taste this carefully because the drippings can be very salty from the rub). Serve everyone a little of both muscles.

Serving the next day and leftovers

I often get asked what's the best way to cook brisket or pulled pork on Saturday and serve it on Sunday. My answer is "don't do it". That's called serving leftovers.

These meats are best fresh off the smoker. If you have to serve it at noon on Sunday, then start cooking before you go to bed. If you need to take it to a game, then wrap the hot meat in foil and blankets and put it in a beer cooler and you can keep it warm that way for about 2 hours (read my article on faux Cambros).

If you don't want to cook overnight then consider serving something that doesn't take so long, like smoked turkey or baby back ribs.

If you cook it Saturday to serve Sunday, you must refrigerate the meat overnight. If you refrigerate it before pulling or slicing, it will take you many hours to reheat it. That's a big hunk of meat. So you are best off pulling or slicing the meat on Saturday, and then refrigerating it.

Brisket the following day is best reheated in the microwave a small amount at a time. But it will be a bit drier and tougher than the first day, so bring back some life with a splash of water, apple juice, or barbecue sauce. The best method is in the microwave, second best is to heat it slowly in a pot with the lid on.

If you have leftovers that you will not scarf down in a few days, mix the leftovers with a bit of barbecue sauce, and freeze them in measured portions in zipper bags. The sauce prevents freezer burn. Pop one in the microwave and you've got a great emergency meal for two.

Here's are some other ideas for leftover brisket:

indent arrow Probably the best thing I've ever done with leftover brisket is Shepherd's Pie. This classic Irish peasant casserole was a hearty meal for sheep herders, often served midday. There are hundreds of variations on the theme, but it is essentially meat and potatoes in two layers. Here's the core concept: Brown veggies and cubes of lamb in a deep pan or casserole. Whup up some mashed potatoes, and pile them on top. Put them in the oven and bake.

So here's what I did: On Sunday I did brisket and garlic mashed. I browned carrots, celery, onion, and frozen peas, and then tossed in cubes of leftover brisket, some of the jus that was in the foil when I did my Texas Crutch (not too much, it's strong stuff), and some beef stock leftover from the last time I did a Prime Rib (beef broth will do). Topped them with about 2" of leftover garlic mashed. Painted the top with butter, sprinkled on some parmesan cheese and bread crumbs, and baked the whole shootin' match in the oven until the top was brown. OMG.

indent arrow Leftover brisket makes good sandwiches. I like mine with lettuce, tomato, and avocado. I slice or chop leftover meat and freeze it, two portions per zipper bag (that's brisket being chopped for sandwiches at the Salt Lick outside Austin, below). Freeze the sauce in ice cube trays and put the cubes in zipper bags. When it's time to serve, defrost the cubes, pour the gravy over the meat, and gently warm it in a microwave on low or in the oven at 200°F (below boiling). If you don't have gravy, moisten the meat with beef stock.

indent arrow Slow's Bar-B-Q in Detroit is famous for their brisket enchiladas. They are made by sautéing onions, tossing in some sliced brisket and a splash of hot sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and their house secret sauce. They then dump it on a tortilla, top it with grated smoked gouda cheese, roll it up, grate some American cheese on top, and give it a squirt of hot sauce for good measure.

indent arrow Believe it or not, leftover brisket is great in a Chinese stir-fry with onions, carrots, broccoli, and a soy/sesame oil/hoisin sauce with a splash of hot sauce on a bed of rice.

indent arrow Buzz Dean of in Wisconsin, says he takes his leftovers to the pub and trades it for beer!

indent arrow John R. Crowley in Denver says he likes to chop leftovers up in beans or fry it up in some hash.

indent arrow Bill Martin in Hawaii likes his leftovers chopped up in scrambled eggs and on top of a salad.

indent arrow Lucy Baker says "Make Italian beef-style sandwiches with very cooked (limp) green and red bell peppers, onion, and a little Italian seasoning. Reheat the beef in broth and spoon over crusty bread before adding the beef and peppers. Yikes!"

indent arrow Merrill Powers in Elmhurst, Illinois, makes quesadillas with his leftovers.

indent arrow Dave Frary makes chili with his leftovers.

indent arrow Danny Gaulden makes burritos.

indent arrow Rodney Leist from Elfrida, Arizona, kills several different leftovers in one dish. He puts one of those single serving bags of corn chips in a bowl, adds a big scoop of leftover chopped brisket, a similar amount of leftover smoked sausage, and a similar amount of beans. On goes some leftover sauce, chopped onions, chopped jalapeños, and grated cheese. The whole thing gets heated in the microwave.

This page was revised 12/27/2013

 


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